Darlene

Wednesday, January 03, 2007

Questions for consideration: Night

1. Weisel's childhood home was in Sighet, Transylvania.

Sighet, Transylvania is a small, rural village in present-day Romania where Elie Wiesel was born and lived until he was taken away to concentration camps. Sighet is located in Transylvania, near the Transylvanian Alps in central Romania. It is such a small village that it did not even make the maps. Before the war, there were several Jewish temples and synagogues in and near Sighet. In the 1930's, the Jewish population in Romania totaled 500,000 up from 29,000 in 1803. However, during World War II, most of those Jews were evacuated and sent off to the Nazi labor or death camps.

2.The cabbala refers to mystical Jewish teachings;a body of mystical Jewish teachings based on an interpretation of hidden meanings in the Hebrew Scriptures.
3. When Elie was young, he studied the cabbala. He wanted to study it in order to discover the truths of “humanity”. He was ignorant of the fact that humans can be cruel and savage.
4.Moshe the beadle is a significant character because not only did he teach Elie and answer many of his questions, but was a witness and survivor of a tragedy. He tried to warn the others after his escape, but he was ignored and thought to be a madman. During his teachings he tells Elie,"man raises himself toward God by the questions he asks Him,""That is the true dialogue. Man questions God and God answers. But we don't understand them. Because they come from the depths of the soul, and they stay there until death. You will find true answers, Eliezer, only within yourself!"
5.The people of Sighet ignore Moshe after his escape because they don't beleive what he says. The stories are so incredible that people beleive he has gone mad. Nobody listens to him because they think his stories are lies so that people can pity him.
6.Madame Schachter is a woman,about fifty, who is traveling with her 10 year old son in the same transport as Elie and his dad. Her husband and the rest of her children had accidentally beentaken during the first transport. she was broken apart by that and seemed to grow hysterical. More than once she awoke those who accompanied her with horrible screams signaling a big fire. A few days after, when they arrived at camp they thought of her as they saw a huge crematory with piles of children in flames. They realized that she had ,in a way ,tried to warn them.

8. This passage talks about how concentration camp has changed who he is and his beliefs. The hardships he lived through made the strong believer he was vanish, and instead made him doubt whether god even existed.
9. Throughout night Elie’s understanding of god changes by him believing that God has abandoned the Jews. He is most angry with god when he says“What are you, my God, compared to this afflicted crowd, proclaiming to You their faith, their anger, their revolt? What does your greatness mean, Lord of the universe, in the face of all this weakness, this decomposition, and this decay? Why do you still trouble their sick minds, their crippled bodies?”(Weisel 63) But Even though he wants to be mad at god, it’s as if he was having battle inside of him. Part of him “hates” god for permitting what is happening to the Jews, and part of him doesn’t want to let go of god. “And, in spite of myself, a prayer rose in my heart, to that god in whom I no longer believed. My god, Lord of the Universe, give me strength never to do what Rabbi Eliahou’s son has done.” (weisel 87)
10. In Night, night is symbolic. Night always occurs when suffering is worst, and its presence reflects Eliezer’s belief that he lives in a world without God. The first time Eliezer mentions that “night fell” is when his father is interrupted while telling stories and informed about the deportation of Jews. It is also night when Eliezer first arrives at Birkenau and Auschwitz, and it is night specifically “pitch darkness” when the prisoners begin their horrible run from Buna.
11. In my opinion Wiesel wrote Night in a concise manner, in a slim book, because he didn’t want to have every detail in it. He wanted to get a point across to many people and used the most relevant and important details and facts. Perhaps another reason why he didn’t add details is because it would have been much more horrifying, and some things are better left untold; and maybe forgotten.
12. Night is a combination of both tragedy and triumph. It is triumphant because of the people who were able to survive, and some even write books to warn and prevent this, as Elie did. But it is also very tragic because many lost their lives. Families were disintegrated, people starved, some were whipped to death or even hanged, and there was just too much suffering during the holocaust.

Reaction Journal
12/21/06-pgs 1-10
Pg4
“He told his story in that of his companions. The train full of deportees had crossed the Hungarian frontier and on polish territory had been taken in charge by the Gestapo. There it had stopped. The Jews had to get out and climb into Lorries. The Lorries drove toward a forest. The Jews were made to get out. They were made to dig huge graves. And when they finished their work, the Gestapo began theirs. Without passion, without haste, they slaughtered their prisoners. Each one had had to go up to a hole and present his neck Babies were thrown into the air and the machine gunners used them as targets”
I was shocked when I pictured this as I read that passage for the first time. It is incredibly horrible to think that babies could be treated this way. I mean it’s sad enough that they were treating Jews as slaves & then killing them for no apparent meaning, but nt0o think of the way the Innocent babies were being killed is just horrifying.
pg 8
"We drank, we ate, we sang. The Bible bade us rejoice during the seven days of the feast, to be happy. But our hearts were not in it. Our hearts had been beating more rapidly for some days. We wished the feast were over, so that we should not have to play this comedy any longer."
They aren’t really enjoying themselves as one usually does at a party(celebration). Instead of enjoying they are wishing it would end. I believe it is because they feel afraid and in some sort of danger. They only act in a rejoicing manner, but do not truly feel that way.

12/21/06-pgs 11-20
Pg 20
“The following morning the following morning, we marched to the station where a convoy of cattle wagons was waiting. The Hungarian police made us get in – eighty people in each car. We wee lefta few loaves of bread and some buckets of water. The bars at the window were checked, to see that they were not loose. Then the cars were sealed. In each car one person was in charge. If anyone escaped, he would be shot.”
It must have been really crowded and irritating to be in a small wagon carrying about 80 people. It must have been very difficult. Very little food, drink, no where to go to the bathroom or sleep, noisy, frustrating, and I’m pretty sure it didn’t smell good.
12/21/06-pgs 21-30
Pg 21
“Lying down was out of question, and we were only able to sit by deciding to take turns. There was very little air. The lucky ones who happened to be near a window could see the blossoming countryside roll by. After two days of traveling, we began to be tortured by thirst. Then the heat became unbearable”
Wow! Such harsh conditions. I don’t think I would be able to resist living like they did.
pg 30
“He seemed to be telling the truth. Not far from us, flames were leaping up from a ditch, gigantic flames. They were burning something. A lorry drew up at the pit and delivered its load –little children. Babies! Yes, I saw it –saw it with my own eyes… those children in the flames.”
I can’t believe this really happened. How in humane! What a terrible death, and at such a young age. Poor innocent babies, being cremated in big piles. What a horrible sight(and an even more horrible experience).
12/21/06-pgs 31-40
Pg 32
“Never shall I forget that night, the first night at camp, which has turned my life into one long night, seven times cursed and seven times sealed. Never shall I forget that smoke. Never shall I forget the little faces of the children, whose bodies I saw turned into wreaths of smoke beneath a silent blue sky. Never shall I forget those flames which consumed my faith forever. Never shall I forget that nocturnal silence which deprived me, for all eternity, of the desires to live. Never shall I forget those moments which murdered my God and my soul and turned my dreams to dust. Never shall I forget these things, even if I am condemned to live as long as God himself. Never.”
How could he say this?! Such harsh conditions were responsible for such a drastic change. A change of body and soul. Only such tragedies as the ones he saw and lived through could make a strong believer go against god, and lose all hopes. And losing that faith and hope makes it even harder to survive because you no longer care about anything, or anyone.
12/22/06-pgs 41 50"The bell gave us the signal to disperse. We went to get our evening meal of bread and margarine. I was dreadfully hungry and swallowed my ration on the spot. My father said, "You don't want to eat it all at once, tomorrow's another day..."
This passage is advice. It is not only useful to Elie but to everybody. One should not go ahead and spend all of something just because you have it. Whether it be food, money, or whatever, one should save some for when it is scarce.
12/22/06-pgs 51-60
Pg 52
"And he began to beat him with an iron bar. At first my father crouched under the blows, and then he broke in two, like a dry tree struck by lightning, and collapsed. I had watched the whole scene without moving. I kept quiet. In fact I was thinking of how to get farther away so that I would not be hit myself. What is more, any anger I felt at that moment was directed, not against the Kapo, but against my father. I was angry with him, for not knowing how to avoid Idek's outbreak. That is what concentration camp life had made of me."
He must have felt guilty. If not at the moment, maybe he does now.To look at your father get hit and you wanting to get as far as possible to protect yourself does not seem right. I’m not saying he should have jumped in and risked his life, but he should have been close so that when the man left he could help out his father. But I understand that as much as he would have liked to defend his father, he wouldn’t have done so. He has been “trained” to look out for no other than himself.
12/22/06-pgs 61-70
Pg 62
Where is God now?" And I heard a voice within me answer him: "Where is He? Here He is-He is hanging here on this gallows..."
To Elie god is dead. He died along the way accompanying the others. Or, at least he would prefer think of god as dead rather than as cruel(for what they are having to go through).
Pg 65
“This day I had ceased to plead. I was no longer capable of lamentation. On the contrary, I felt very strong. I was the accuser, God the accused. My eyes were open and I was alone-terribly alone in a world without god and without man. Without love or mercy. I had ceased to be anything but ashes, yet I felt myself to be stronger than the Almighty, to whom my life had been tied to for so long. I stood amid that praying congregation, observing it like a stranger.”
The holocaust has made Elie’s faith disappear. All his life had been devoted to god, and now all these changes have made him blame god for it and he no longer believes in this god.. He feels stronger and he feels god is to be accused of such horrors. He no longer depends on or devotes himself to god. He is no longer capable of lamentation, love, or mercy. He has become empty.
12/22/06-pgs 71-80
Pg 73
"In three days I shall no longer be here.... Say the Kaddish for me. We promised him. In three days' time, when we saw the smoke rising from the chimney, we would think of him. Ten of us would gather together and hold a special service. All his friends would say the Kaddish. Then he went off toward the hospital, his step steadier, not looking back. An ambulance was waiting to take him to Birkenau. These were terrible days. We received more blows than food; we were crushed with work. And three days after he had gone we forgot to say the Kaddish."
It is sad to think that you are alone In the world. It is even sadder to think that you have friends, and that when you die you ask for them to grant your last wish but they don’t. You die thinking that your good friends will say a prayer for you; not too much to ask for, but once your dead you are forgotten. Your friends have been mistreated so as the days go by they for get about your prayer. This is a moving passage because it shows that you can’t depend on any body. You are there only for yourself.
12/22/06-pgs 81-90
Pg 84
“Under our feet were men crushed, trampled underfoot, dying. No one paid any attention.”
They have been put through so much that they have lost all sense of feelings toward one another.
Pg 87
“He had already passed through the door when I suddenly remembered seeing his son running by my side. I had forgotten that, and I didn’t tell Rabbi Eliahou! Then I remembered something else: his son had seen him losing ground, limping, staggering back to the rear of the column. He had seen him. And he had continued to run on in front, letting distance between them grow greater. A terrible thought loomed up in my mind: he had wanted to get rid of his father. He had felt that his father was growing weak, he had believed that the end was near and had sought this separation in order to get rid of the burden, to free himself from an encumbrance which could lessen his own chances of survival.”
This demonstrates the fact that not even family was important now to many.. You were there only for yourself, and if your father was left behind you couldn’t risk waiting or slowing down. This is not right but it is the way they were taught under such conditions at camp.

12/22/06-pgs 91-100
Pg 96
"Meir. Meir, my boy! Don't you recognize me? I’m your father... you're hurting me... you're killing your father! I've got some bread... for you too.... for you too... He collapsed. His fist was still clenched around a small piece. He tried to carry it to his mouth. But the other one threw himself upon him and snatched it. The old man again whispered something, let out a rattle, and died amid the general indifference. His son searched him, took the bread, and began to devour it. He was not able to get very far. Two men had seen the hurled themselves upon it. Others joined in. When they withdrew, next to me were two corpses, side by side, the father and the son."
This is a very upsetting passage. To think that people can be this savage and selfish. And what makes this upsetting is the fact that it really happened and it happens every day all over the world. Sons and daughters mistreat their parents because of their selfishness the poor man tried to share the food he fought for with his son, but his son didn’t care and killed him for that bread.
12/22/06-pgs 101-109
Pg 106
“I awoke on January 29 at dawn. In my father’s place lay another invalid. They must have taken him away before dawn and carried him to the crematory. He may have still been breathing.there were no prayers at his grave no candles were lit to his memory. His last word was my name. a summons, to which I did not respond. I did not weep, and it Pained me that I could not weep. But I had no more tears. And, in the depths of my being, in the recesses of my weakened conscience, could I have searched it, I might have found something like-free at last!
He can’t even pain his own father’s death. That must feel terrible and must have filled him with guilt. Concentration camp made them uncivilized and dehumanized them.
pg 109
"One day I was able to get up, after gathering all my strength. I wanted to see myself in the mirror hanging on the opposite wall. I had not seen myself since the ghetto. From the depths of the mirror, a corpse gazed back at me. The look in his eyes, as they stared into mine, has never left me."
This is one the strongest passages in the book. You can feel the horror he felt as he saw a “corpse” gazing back at him. As if he was stuck in a body other than his. It gives me this creepy feeling, it must have been horrible to see himself like that.


Wednesday, December 06, 2006

balneo-, balne-
Greek > Latin: bath, bathing; wash, washing
balneal
Of or pertaining to baths or to bathing.
balnearii
People who steal clothing from public baths.
balnearil
The people who stole clothing from a public bath in ancient Rome.
balneary
A bathing room.
balneation
The act of bathing.
balneatory
Belonging to a bath.
balneatrix, balneatricis
Caretaker of a bath (feminine).
balneography
A written description about baths.
balneological
Of or pertaining to balneology.
balneologist
1. A specialist or expert in balneology.2. Someone who practices in the profession of balneotherapy.
balneology
The scientific medical study of bathing and medicinal springs.
balneophile, balneophilist
A collector of pictures of bathing girls or a fondness for collecting pictures of girls in swimsuits.

baro-, bar-, bary-
Greek: weight, heavy; atmospheric pressure; a combining form meaning "pressure", as in barotaxis, or sometimes "weight", as in baromacrometer

baragnosis, baragnosia, baroagnosis
1. The inability to appreciate or estimate weight. 2. Loss of the sense of weight.
baranesthesia
Insensibility to weight or pressure on the body.
baresthesia, baryesthesia, baryesthesia
The sensibility to weight or pressure on the body.
baresthesiometer
An instrument for measuring the sense of pressure.
barhypesthesia
Impairment of deep pressure sensation.
bariatrician
A health practitioner specializing in bariatrics.
bariatrics, bariatric
That branch of medicine concerned with the management (prevention or control) of obesity and allied diseases.
baric
Relating to barometric pressure (as in isobar) or to weight generally.
baricity
The weight or density of a substance in comparison to a different substance at similar conditions of temperature and atmospheric pressure.
baroceptor
In physiology, a pressure-sensitive receptor organ of the nervous system, found, for example, in the walls of blood vessels.
baroclinity, baroclinicity, barocliny
In physics, a state of fluid stratification in which isobaric surfaces and isosteric surfaces are not parallel, but intersect.
barocyclonometer
An aneroid barometer with diagrams and directions for detecting the existence of a storm at a distance of several hundred miles.
barodontalgia
Toothache associated with the reduction in atmospheric pressure in high-altitude flying. Also: aerodontalgia.
barodynamics
In mechanics, the study of the mechanics of heavy structures that are liable to collapse under their own weight.


benthos
Greek: deep, depth; the fauna and flora of the bottom of the sea; sea bottom; depth [by extension, this element includes lake, river, and stream bottoms

benthic, benthonic
1. Pertaining to the sea bed, river bed, or lake floor2. The collection of organisms living on or in sea or lake bottoms.
benthogenic
Derived from or produced from the benthos.
benthon
The aggregate of organisms that live on or in the benthos [benth(os) + -on, extracted from plankton; according to Random House Unabridged Dictionary, 2nd ed., 1987].
benthopelagic
Spanning the deepest to the highest levels, or areas, of oceans, seas, lakes, etc.
benthopheustophyte
Any large plant resting freely on the floor of a lake but capable of drifting slowly with the currents.
benthophilia
Thriving in the lowest areas of oceans, seas, lakes, etc.
benthophyte
A plant living at the bottom of a body of water or in the bed of a river.
benthopleustophyte, benthopleustophytic
Any large plant resting freely on the floor of a lake but capable of drifting slowly with the currents.
benthopotamous
Living on the bed (bottom) of a river or stream.

berserk
Old Norse: berserkar, literally, “bear’s skin”; a Norse-myth warrior

berserk
1. Behaving in an uncontrolled way as a result of anger or irrational feeling; to go berserk.2. Extremely excited or enthusiastic about something (informal): "The crowd went berserk when the movie star finally appeared."3. Destructively or frenetically violent: "The berserk worker started to smash all of the windows."4. Mentally or emotionally upset; deranged: "She was berserk with grief."5. Informal: Unrestrained, as with enthusiasm or appetite; wild: "They went berserk over the chocolates."
When people informally say, "the group went berserk", they don't realize how extreme such a remark really is.
When we say that we are going berserk, most of us don't realize how extreme a state this might be. The adjective comes from the noun berserker, or berserk, which is from the Old Norse word berserkr, “a wild warrior or champion”. Such warriors wore hides of bears, which explains the probable origin of berserkr as a compound of bera, “bear” and serkr, “shirt, coat”. These berserkers became frenzied in battle, howling like animals, foaming at the mouth, and biting the edges of their iron shields.
A wild Norse warrior of great strength and ferocious courage, who fought on the battle-field with a frenzied fury known as the berserker rage; often with a lawless, bravo attitude. Also a reference to someone who is frenzied, furiously, or madly violent, or who goes berserk. Berserker was first recorded in English in the early 19th century, long after these wild warriors ceased to exist.
berserker
1. A member of a group of Norse warriors who fought with wild unrestrained agrgression.2. One of a band of ancient Norse warriors legendary for their savagery and reckless frenzy in battle.3. One of the ancient Norse warriors legendary for working themselves into a frenzy before a battle and fighting with reckless savagery and insane fury.
Old Berserker (Bear Skin) was a famous character in Norse mythology who was a supernatural warrior who fought with great fury and feared nothing. It is said that he even fought without weapons or armor and rushed into battle “protected” only by the bear skin thrown over his shoulder and clawing and biting his victims to death.
Examples of modern berserkers minus the bear skins
Based on this myth, any fierce figher was soon called a berserker; especially one who fought with a fury that seemed almost insane and terrified even his allies. In time, to go berserk came to mean the violent, furious rage of a madman.
Modern berserkers gone wild.
Back in 1995, there was an article about three young men, sixteen, seventeen, and eighteen years of age; two of whom were arrested for killing their parents.
The brothers are charged with three counts each of homicide and conspiracy to commit homicide in the slayings of their parents and their younger brother.
Police say the brothers had threatened for years to kill their parents as revenge for trying to impose their strict way of life as Jehovah’s Witnesses on the boys.
The three, two brothers and a cousin, all had shaven heads and tattoos. One had “Sieg Heil!” tattooed above his eyebrows, while two of them had “Berserker” tattooed on their foreheads; an apparent reference to Norse folk stories about warriors so fierce they needed no armor.
—Stars and Stripes from Midland, Mich. (AP), March 4, 1995, p. 6.
berserkly
In a berserk manner; madly; violently angry.
go berserk
Erupt in furious rage, become crazily violent. For example, "When they announced the gymnast's score, her coach went berserk."
This expression is believed to allude to the name of Norse warriors renowned for their ferocity in battle and for wearing no armor but a bearskin shirt (or berserkar).

bio-, bi-, -biotic
Greek: life; living, live, alive

abiocoen
The sum total of the non-living components of an environment.
abiogenesis
1. The (supposed) origin or evolution of living organisms from lifeless matter without the action of living parents; “spontaneous generation” (introduced by Professor Thomas H. Huxley when addressing the British Association at Liverpool, September, 1870).2. The now discredited theory that living organisms can be spontaneously generated directly from nonliving matter. An antonym of biogenesis.
abiogenetic
Of or pertaining to abiogenesis.
abiogenetically
In an abiogenetic manner; by way of abiogenesis.
abiogenic, abiogenically
Not derived from living organisms; occurring independently of life or life processes, but perhaps preceding or leading to them. Antonymous to biogenic.
abiogenist
One who holds or advocates the hypothesis of abiogenesis.
abiogenous, abiogeny
Coming into existence without springing from antecedent living beings; produced by “spontaneous generation”.
abiological
Not pertaining to biology; pertaining to the study of inanimate things. Also: abiotic, inanimate.
abiology, abiologic, abiological
The study of inanimate or non-living things.
abiophysiology
The study of inorganic processes in living organisms.
abioseston
The non-living component of the total particulate matter suspended in water.
abiosis
1. Devoid of life; non-living.2. Absence or deficiency of life; abiotrophy.
abiotic, abiotically
1. Characterized by the absence of life; inanimate. 2. That which is harmful to or destructive of living organisms. 3. Incompatible with life.
abiotrophy, abiatrophy, abionergy
The progressive loss of vitality of certain tissues or organs leading to disorders or loss of function; applied especially to degenerative hereditary diseases of late onset.
acaustobiolith
A noncombustible rock that is organic or formed by organic accumulation of minerals; the category includes diatomite, radiolarite, phosphorite, and some limestones.

Biopiracy:
defined at this bio unit page
Kenya wants a share of the sales of a fabric softener that uses enzymes derived from its Lake Bogoria
There is growing worldwide opposition to the granting of patents on biological materials; such as, genes, plants, animals and humans. Farmers and indigenous peoples are outraged that plants that they developed are being 'hijacked' by companies. Groups as diverse as religious leaders, parliamentarians and environment NGOs are intensifying their campaign against corporate patenting of living things.Worldwide opposition to biological piracy is rapidly building up as more and more groups and people become aware that big corporations are reaping massive profits from using the knowledge and biological resources of Third World communities.
—Martin Khor, Director, TWN, Third World Netword
"Salt lake is focus of 'bio-piracy case' "

In generations past, the people who lived around Lake Bogoria, Kenya, attributed mystical powers to its water.
Chilly in some points and scalding in others, Lake Bogoria could supposedly wash away an array of maladies from skin ailments to stress. Goats were, and sometimes still are, slaughtered at the edge of the lake's hot springs as offerings to the spirits thought to reside in the mist.
Equally miraculous uses have been discovered recently for the water, which is as salty as the sea and holds hearty microorganisms not commonly found in other parts of the world.
Although it has a primordial feel, Lake Bogoria is in many ways thoroughly modern, a little-known player in the fashion industry, for instance, and the subject of a high-stakes legal dispute to boot.
Those stonewashed jeans that fit oh, so right may owe their bleached appearance and soft feel to Lake Bogoria, or more specifically to an enzyme isolated from a microbe collected here.
Another enzyme derived from creatures in Kenyan salt lakes like this one plays an important role in commonly used detergents, rooting out difficult stains and reducing the forming of pill bumps on cotton fabrics.
What the company that developed the commercial uses for the microbes trumpets as innovative science, Kenyan authorities are decrying as "bio-piracy".
Developing countries are seeking to share in the profits made from their biological riches, whether from a fungus found in giraffe dung, an antibiotic discovered in a termite mound or an appetite suppressant derived from a cactus.
At Lake Bogoria and Lake Nakuru, to its south, scientists took samples in plastic bags in 1992. They found "extremophiles," durable creatures that reside in one of the Earth's most inhospitable terrains, and subjected them to a battery of tests.
Genencor International, a California- based company, subsequently purchased the enzyme samples, patented them and cloned them on an industrial scale for textile companies and detergent manufacturers.
Genencor has not been shy about the origins of its microbes. In its annual report in 2000, it boasted: "To find enzymes that flourish in alkaline environments, like your Saturday wash water, the enzymes that give your jeans a 'softer' feel and a stonewashed look, we looked for them, that's right, in the soda lakes of Kenya."
Kenyan officials learned in 1994 that the company was profiting from materials taken from the lake and have been pursuing compensation ever since. They say proper permission was never granted for microorganisms to be taken and sold.
Genencor said in a statement, "We welcome an open dialogue with appropriate Kenyan authorities and look forward to a positive resolution."
Kenyan officials say they believe that the profits are far more than the company is letting on; and while Genencor insists that one of its main business partners, Procter & Gamble, has not used the Kenyan enzymes in its products, the Kenyans suspect otherwise.

broma
Greek > Latin: food
broma
1. In medicine, a food ailment.2. A form of cocoa from which the oil has been thoroughly extracted.
bromatherapy, bromatotherapy
Diet therapy.
bromatologist
Someone who is a specialist in the science of foods.
bromatology
1. A discourse about food.2. The science of food.3. The science of nutrition; dietetics.
bromatotoxin, bromatoxism, bromatotoxismus
A poison that forms in spoiled food from the activity of fermentative bacteria.
bromography, bromograph
A treatise or dissertation about food.
theobroma
Cocoa
bromo-, brom-
Greek: stench, stink, bad odor; unpleasant bodily odor; bromine.
Be careful not to confuse this "stink", "bad odor" group with another unit of broma words meaning "food".
There is also a Chemical Element: bromine which requires special attention.
bromhidrosis, bromidrosis
1. Sweat that is fetid or offensive due to bacterial decomposition. It occurs mostly on the feet, in the groin, and under the arms.2. Also called kakidrosis, cacidrosis, fetid sweat, fetid perspiration, osmidrosis, ozochrotia.
Bromhidrosis, or body odor, is caused by bacteria growing on the body. These bacteria multiply considerably in the presence of sweat, but sweat itself is almost totally odorless. Body odor is associated with the hair, feet, crotch (upper medial thigh), anus, skin in general, breasts, armpits, genitals, and pubic hair.
bromidrosiphobia
A mental disorder in which there is an abnormal fear of personal odors, accompanied by hallucinations.
bromidrosiphobia, bromidrosophobia
An abnormal fear of one’s own personal body odors or those from others; sometimes with the belief that such an odor is present even when it is not.
bromohyperhidrosis
Profuse bromhidrosis. Also known as, bromohyperidrosis.
bromomenorrhea
Menstruation characterized by an offensive odor.
bromopnea
1. A strong, offensive smell, or stench from the mouth.2. Foul breath which may be caused by a disease within the mouth (dental caries, severe ulcerative stomatitis, ulceromembranous pharyngitis, etc.) or the nose (ozena, malignant disease, etc.), but frequently defies medical diagnosis.3. Also known as, halitosis, fetor ex ore, stomatodysodia, and ozostomia.
podobromhidrosis
A malodorous and offensive perspiration of the feet; "stinking" feet.
podobromidrosis
1. A stench, or a stink, caused by sweating feet.2. A malodorous perspiration of the feet.

caco-, cac-, kako-, kak-
Greek: bad, harsh, wrong, evil; incorrect; unpleasant; poor; used most of the time as a prefix)

alexicacon, alexikakon
A preservative against evil; a safeguard against bad.
cacaerometer
Measuring bad air.
cacaesthesia, cacesthesia, kakesthesia
Abnormal dysfunctional sensations on the skin; such as, a feeling of numbness, tingling, prickling, or a burning or cutting pain; heightened sensitivity. Also, dysesthesia and paresthesia.
cacergasia, kakergasia
The malfunctioning of the functions and reactions of the total individual in contradistinction to the functions of individual organs or parts of the human organism.
cachectic
Relating to or suffering from cachexia.
cachexia, cachexy
1. A state of ill health, malnutrition, and wastng. It may occur in many chronic diseases, certain malignancies, and advanced pulmonary tuberculosis. 2. A general weight loss and wasting occurring in the course of a chronic disease or emotional disturbance. 3. A chronic catabolic state, associated with certain infections and malignancies, characterized by weight loss that continues despite the consumption of an adequate diet.
cacidrosis, kakidrosis
Sweat that is fetid or offensive due to bacterial decomposition. It occurs mostly on the feet, in the groin, and under the arms.
cacochylous
A reference to bad chyle or difficult digestion.
cacodemon, cacodaemon, cacodemonia
1. An evil spirit or demon. 2. A name for nightmare.
cacodemoniac
One possessed with an evil spirit.
cacodemonomania
A delusion that one is, or is about to be inhabited by or possessed of, a devil or some evil spirit (demon).
cacodermia
Bad skin; i.e., a condition in which one has a pimply or rough skin.
cacodontia, cacodentia, cacodental
Having bad or malformed teeth.
cacodorous
Bad-smelling, ill-smelling, malodorous.
cacodox
Holding what is considered to be wrong or evil opinions, teachings, or doctrines.

digit-, digiti-
Latin: finger, toe; from Greek daktylos
bidigitate, bidigital
Having two digits, fingers, or finger-like processes.
digit
1. A finger or toe in human beings or the corresponding part in other vertebrates.2. Any of the Arabic numerals 0 to 9; one of the elements that collectively form a system of numbers.3. Any of the symbols of other number systems, as 0 or 1 in the binary.4. The width of a finger used as a unit of length, equal to approximately 2 cm (3/4 in).5. In astronomy, the twelfth part of the sun's or moon's diameter; used to express the magnitude of an eclipse.
In anatomy, a jointed body part at the end of the limbs of many vertebrates. The limbs of primtes end in five digits, while the limbs of horses end in a single digit that terminates in a hoof. The fingers and toes are digits in humans.
digital
1. Pertaining to, resembling, or using a digit or digits.2. Resembling an impression made by a finger.3. Pertaining to data in the form of discrete states as contrasted to analog data in the form of continuously variable physical quantities.
In computer science, representing or operating on data or information in numerical form. A digital clock uses a series of changing digits to represent time at discrete intervals; for example, every second. Modern computers rely on digital processing techniques, in which both data and the instructions for manipulating data are represented as binary numbers.
digitalgia
Pain in a digit.
digitalgia paresthetica
Pain, paresthesiae, and numbness restricted to the distribution of a single digital nerve.
digitaliform
A reference to the form of the corolla of the fox-glove.
digitalis
The dried leaf of Digitalis purpurea, the purple foxglove.
The flower digitalis, long known as a heart stimulant, is so named bcause a human finger, or digit, fits snugly into one of its deep-throated bells.
digitalisation, digitalization
The administration of digitalis for the treatment of certain heart disorders.
digitally
By means of digits; in digital form.
digitaria
Crab grass; finger grass.
digitary
Of or pertaining to the fingers.
digitate
1. Having fingers or toes, or having parts that are like fingers or toes; having radiating divisions or leaflets resembling the fingers of a hand.2. A description of leaves that have divisions or parts arrayed from a central point like the spread fingers of a hand.
digitate
1. Possessing several fingerlike processes or impressions.2. Arranged like the fingers of the hand.3. Of quadrupeds that have separate or divided digits or toes.4. Of leaves, etc.: Having deep radiating divisions; now usually applied to compound leaves consisting of a number of leaflets all springing from one point, as in the horse-chestnut.
digitated
Having divisions for the toes.
digitately
1. Having digits or fingerlike projections.2. In botany, having distinct parts arising from a common point or center; palmate.

Thursday, November 30, 2006

Greek: hearing, listening, of or for hearing

acouasm
In psychiatry: a nonverbal auditory hallucination, such as a ringing or hissing in the ears; acousma; also known as tinnitus.
acoubouy
Used by military ordnance, a listening device dropped by parachute onto land and water, used to detect sounds of enemy movements and transmit them to orbiting aircraft or land stations.
acouesthesia
The sense of hearing; auditory perception.
You can hear cow bells but you can't hear cow horns.
—Evan Esar
We hear what we listen for.
—Anonymous
A good listener is one who can give you his full attention without hearing a word you say.
—Anonymous
acoumeter
An instrument used for estimating the power or extent of the sense of hearing before the introduction of audiometers. Variant spellings include these words: acouometer, acoumeter, acousmeter, acousmetric, acousmometric, acoumetry, and acoumetric.
acouophone
An obsolete term for an electric hearing aid.
acouophonia
"Auscultatory percussion" or the act of listening to sounds produced within the body; especially, the chest and abdomen, as a means of detecting evidence of disorders or pregnancy.
acousia
This is now spelled acusis.
acousma
A simple auditory hallucination, such as ringing or buzzing sounds "in the ears"; also acouasm.
acousmata
Things received (heard) on authority; a technical word for a school of philosophy.
acousmatagnosis
In psychology, an abnormal inability to understand spoken words and to recognize meaningful sounds.
acousmatamnesia
1. Failure of the memory to call up the images of sounds.2. The inability to remember certain sounds.
acousmatic
A professed hearer, a class of scholars under Pythagoras, who listened to his teachings, without inquiring into their inner truths or basis.
acoustic, acoustical, acoustically
Pertaining to the sense of hearing; adapted to aid hearing; the science of audible sounds.
acoustic agraphia
The inability to write from dictation (from what is heard).
acousticate
To deny that one has been correctly heard even when one is painfully aware that there has been no mistake, this denial being often supported by the hasty fabrication of a new utterance, similar in sound to the original, but more agreeable in sense.
"I quickly acousticated 'fatuous ass' into 'anfractuous mass,' and nobody noticed a thing."

Greek: high, highest, highest point; top, tip end, outermost; extreme; extremity of the body)

acroagnosia
Lack of sensory recognition of a limb.
acroagnosis
Lack of sensory recognition of a limb (arms and/or legs); also, acragnosis.
acroanesthesia
Loss of sensation in the extremities; such as the hands, fingers, toes, and feet.
acroarthritis
Arthritis affecting the extremities (hands or feet).
acroasphyxia
1. An obsolete term for acrocyanosis. 2. Neurosis marked by asphyxia of the extremities. 3. Impaired digital circulation, possibly a mild form of Raynaud’s disease, marked by a purplish or waxy white color of the fingers, with subnormal local temperature and paresthesia. Also known as “dead fingers”, or “waxy fingers”.
acroataxia
Ataxia affecting the distal portion of the extremities; such as, hands and fingers, feet, and toes.
Ataxia is the inability to coordinate muscle activity during voluntary movement, so that smooth movements occur.
acrobat, acrobatic
A performer on the trapeze, tightrope, etc.
acroblast
A body in the spermatid from which arises the acrosome.
acrobrachycephaly
A condition resulting from fusion of the coronal suture, causing abnormal shortening of the anteroposterior diameter of the skull.
acrobryous
Growing only at the tip.
acrobystitis
Inflammation of the prepuce (foreskin).
Acrocanthosaurus
A “high-spined lizard” from Early Cretaceous Oklahoma , Utah, and Texas, USA. Named by U.S paleotologists John Willis Stovall and Wann Langston, Jr. in 1950.
acrocarpous
Bearing fruit at the end of the stalk, as some mosses.
acrocentric
A type of chromosome having the centromere near one end of the replicating chromosome, so that one arm is much longer than the other.
acrocephalia, acrocephalic, acrocephalous, acrocephaly
Denoting a head that is pointed and conelike; also known as, oxycephaly, oxycephalous

Greek: feeling, sensation, perception

aesthacyte
A sensory cell of primitive animals such as sponges.
aesthesia, esthesia
The ability to feel sensations; perception.
aesthesic, esthesic
A reference to the mental perception of sensations.
aesthesiogenic
Producing or causing sensation.
aesthesiometer
An instrument for the purpose of determining the degree of tactile sensibility possessed by the patient.
aesthesis
The perception of the external world by the senses.
aesthesodic
Of nerves that provide a path for sensory impulses; conveying sensations from the external organs to the brain or nerve center.
aesthetasc
An olfactory receptor on the small antennae of some crustaceans; such as, Daphnia (water fleas, some species of which are commonly used as food for aquarium fish).
aesthete, esthete
1. A person who is highly sensitive to art and beauty.2. One who has an acute delight in the beauty of color, line, sound, and texture with a violent distaste for the ugly, shapeless, and discordant. 3. A person who artificially cultivates artistic sensitivity or makes a cult of art and beauty.
aesthetes, esthetes
A reference to sense organs or the plural of esthete.

Arabic > Latin: alcohol, originally an "essence or very fine powder", from Arabic al-kuhl which is from al-, "the", and kohl or kuhl, "antimony sulfide" )
A finely pulverized antimony ore or metallic powder used for painting the eyelids that is related to Hebrew kahal.

alcholimetric
A reference to a device, called a alcoholometer, that measures the quantity of alcohol contained in a liquid.
alcholizer
An alcohol breath-test screening instrument; a breathalyzer with an analyzer cell used in police units worldwide to check drivers suspected of excessive drinking.
alcholometrical
A reference to the use of an alcoholometer.
alcogel
A gelatinous precipitate from a colloidal solution in alcohol.
alcohol
1. A colorless, volatile, pungent liquid; synthesized or derived from fermentation of sugars and starches, it can be burned as fuel, is used in industry and medicine, and is the intoxicating element of whiskey, wine, beer, and other fermented or distilled liquors. It is also called "ethyl alcohol". 2. Any of a series of hydroxyl compounds, the simplest of which are derived from saturated hydrocarbons, and include ethanol and methanol.
alcoholate
A tincture or other preparation containing alcohol.
alcoholature
An alcoholic tincture prepared with fresh plants.
alcoholemia, hyperalcoholemia
The presence of ethanol in the blood.
alcohol-ether
A chemical compound used in shampoos, bubble baths, body wash, liquid soaps.
alcohol fuel
A motor fuel of gasoline blended with 5-25% of amhydrous ethyl alcohol; used particularly in Europe; gasohol.
alcoholic
1. Relating to, containing, or produced by alcohol. 2. One who suffers from alcoholism. 3. One who abuses or is dependent upon alcohol.
alcoholica
Spanish word for alcohol.
alcoholicity
The degree of alcoholic content.
alcoholimeter
A device, such as a form of hydrometer, that measures the quantity of alcohol contained in a liquid.
alcoholism
1. Chronic alcohol abuse, dependence, or addiction; chronic excessive drinking of alcoholic beverages resulting in impairment of health and/or social or occupational functioning, and increasing adaptation to the effects of alcohol requiring increasing doses to achieve and sustain a desired effect; specific signs and symptoms of withdrawal usually are shown when one stops such drinking. 2. "Alcohol dependence" (currently the preferred term); "alcohol addiction". The terms refer to a variety of disorders associated with the repetitive consumption of alcohol, usually over a long period of time, in amounts that the drinker is unable to handle physiologically, emotionally, or socially.

Greek: man, men, male, masculine; also, stamen or anther as used in botany

androblastoma
A rare, benign tumor of the testis that histologically resembles the fetal testis, with varying proportions of tubular and stromal elements; the tubules contain Sertoli cells, which may cause feminization.
androcentric, androcentricity
1. Dominated by or emphasizing masculine interests or points of view; as an androcentric society. 2. Having a man, or the male, as the center of importance.
The four stages of man are: infancy, childhood, adolescence, and finally obsolescence.
—Art Linkletter
androcephalous
Having a man’s head (upon an animal’s body).
androchorous, androchory, androchore
Dispersed by the agency of man.
androconium, androconial
Scales on the wings of certain male Lepidoptera (butterflies) from which the attractive scent of the male is diffused.
androcracy, androcratic
The political rule by men or males; male supremacy.
androcyte
Male sex cell, especially of an immature stage; spermatid

Greek > Latin: [receptacle], vessel, often a blood vessel; "covered by a seed or vessel", a seed vessel; a learned borrowing from Greek meaning "vessel", "container")

angioaccess
Any technique that provides chronic, readily available contact with the vascular system. It may be arterial or venous, or by means of an arteriovenous communitation.
angioarchitecture
1. The arrangement and distribution of the blood vessels of any organ.2. The vascular framework of an organ or tissue.
angioasthenia
Spasmodic variability in the tone of blood vessels.
angioataxia
An irregular tension of the blood vessels.
angioblast
1. A cell taking part in blood vessel formation.2. The primordial mesenchymal tissue from which embryonic blood cells and vascular endothelium are differentiated; also known as a vasoformative cell.
angioblastic
A reference to angioblast.
angiitis, angiitides
Inflammation of a blood or lymph vessel.
angina
1. Any of various diseases or conditions characterized by painful or cramping spasms.2. Any attack of painful spasms characterized by sensations of choking or suffocating.3. Chest pain due to an inadequate supply of oxygen to the heart muscle. The chest pain of angina is typically severe and crushing. There is a feeling just behind the breastbone (the sternum) of pressure and suffocation.4. Any spasmodic, choking, or suffocating pain.5. An old term for a sore throat.
anginal
1. Angina pectoris.2. A condition, such as severe sore throat, in which spasmodic attacks of suffocating pain occur.

Latin: harena; sand, sandy place, sea-shore; place of combat [literally, "place strewn with sand"])

The Arena, More than a Place
The ancient Romans who watched the gladiators fighting to their deaths with swords and other weapons, or wild animals, killing and being killed, went to the amphitheaters for their "entertainment."
The ground couldn't soak up the quantities of blood spilled on it so the show producers covered the ground with absorbent arena (sand). The sand, or arena, became the name of the place for shows, then sports, etc.
• • • •
If you want to leave footprints in the sands of time, don't drag your feet.

arena
1. An indoor or outdoor area, surrounded by seating for spectators, where shows or sports events take place.2. A group of adjoining mating territories of a species.
arenaceo
A prefix that can be attached to other words with the meaning of sandy, mixed with sand; as with arenaceo-argillaceous: of the nature of sandy clay.
arenaceous
1. Used to describe rocks or deposits that are composed of sand grains or have a sandy texture. 2. A reference to plants that grow best in sandy soil. 3. Derived from or containing sand; having the properties of sand; growing in sand; sandy.4. Resembling sand in texture, sandy, or gritty.
arenavirus
A reference to the dense granules resembling sand inside their virion.
arenicole
1. Living or growing in sand.2. Any organism that thrives in sandy areas.
arenicolite
A worm-hole made originally in sand and preserved in a sandstone rock.
arenicolous
Occurring or growing and developing in sandy areas.
arenilitic
Of or pertaining to sandstone.
arenoid
1. Like or similar to sand.2. Resembling grains of sand

Greek: self, same, spontaneous; directed from within

autacoid, autacoidal
An organic substance formed by cells of an organ and carried by the circulatory system to a remote site where it affects another organ.
autaesthesy, autesthesy
Self-consciousness.
autagonistophilia
A sexual perversion in which sexual arousal and orgasm are contingent upon displaying one’s self in a live show, i.e. being observed performing on stage or on camera. The observer’s condition (if the stage or camera performance by the partner is a necessity for sexual arousal) is termed scoptophilia, [scopophilia], not voyeurism.
autantonym
A word that means its opposite.
An example is the word fast, which when referring to a fast runner means a runner who runs rapidly or swiftly; but when it refers to a fast color, it means a color that doesn't run at all.
autarcesiology
The scientific study of natural immunity.
autarcesis
Natural immunity.
autarch
An absolute ruler; autocrat; a tyrant.
autarchy
1. Absolute sovereignty, despotism. 2. Self-government; an autocratic government by one person with unlimited authority over others.
autarkist
Someone who rules a nation that has a policy of economic independence.
autarky, autarkic, autarkical
1. The condition of self-sufficiency; especially, economic, as applied to a nation.2. A national policy of economic independence.
autassasinophilia
Stage-managing one’s own murder, reported as an extreme form of masochism.
autechoscope
An instrument for self-auscultation.
autecology, autoecology, autecological, autoecological
1. The ecology of an individual organism or species.2. The study of the ecology of an individual plant or species; the opposite of synecology.
autemesia
1. Idiopathic or functional vomiting.2. Vomiting that is self-induced by provoking the gag reflex.3. Vomiting induced by autosuggeston, as observed in certain mental patients.
autism
1. Mental introversion in which the attention or interest is fastened on the patient's own ego; a self-centered mental state from which reality tends to be excluded.2. A mental disorder characterized by severely abnormal developments of social interaction and verbal and nonverbal communication skills.3. A tendency to view life in terms of one's own needs and desires.
Affected individuals may adhere to inflexible, nonfunctional rituals or routine. They may become upset with even trivial changes in their environment. They often have a limited range of interests but may become preoccupied with a narrow range of subjects or activities. They appear unable to understand others' feelings and often have poor eye contact with others.
Unpredictable mood swings may occur. Many demonstrate stereotypical motor mannerisms; such as, hand or finger flapping, body rocking, or dipping. The disorder is probably caused by organically based central nervous system dysfunction, especially in the ability to process social or emotional information or language

Thursday, November 16, 2006

a-, an-
(Greek: a prefix meaning: no, absence of, without, lack of, not)
These prefixes are normally used with elements of Greek origin, a- is used before consonants and an- is used before vowels. It affects the meanings of hundreds of words.
There are too many words that use these prefix elements to list all of them on this site; however, there are some significant examples listed in this and the other groups provided.
abacterial
Free of bacteria; without bacteria.
abaptism
The absence of baptism; no baptism.
abarognosis
1. Loss of ability to appreciate the weight of objects held in the hand, or to differentiate objects of different weights.2. Loss of the sense of weight; unaware of weight.3. When the primary senses are intact, caused by a lesion of the contralateral parietal lobe.
abasia
The inability to walk due to a limitation or absence of muscular coordination; not able to walk.
abiocoen, abiocen
The sum of all the nonliving components of an environment or habitat.
abiogenesis: [ab" ee oh JEN uh sis, ay" bigh oh JEN uh sis]
1. The origin of living things from things inanimate; i.e., life coming from non-living material. 2. Spontaneous generation; the concept that life can slimply arise spontaneously from non-living matter by natural processes without the intervention of supernatural powers.
abiology
The study of non-living things.
abiosis
1. Devoid of life; non-living.2. Absence or deficiency of life; abiotrophy.
abiosis, abiotic
Absence or deficiency of life; devoid of life.
abiotrophy, abiotrophies, abiotrophic
1. The loss of vitality in or the degeneration of certain cells or tissues, as in the aging process; physical degeneration; loss of vitality.2. Progressive loss of vitality of certain tissues or organs leading to disorders or loss of function. The longevity of the heart, for instance, may be appreciably shorter than that of other organs of the body, leading to early disturbance in function which upsets organ-equilibrium.3. The degeneration or loss of function or vitality in an organism or in cells or tissues not due to any apparent injury; such as, senile dementia and related abiotrophies.
ablepsia
Loss of sight (not seeing); blindness.
abrachia
Congenital absence of arms; having no arms.
abranchiate
Without gills; no gills.
abrosia
The total lack of food consumption; fasting (no food, not eating).
abulia, abulic
1. Absence of willpower or wishpower; the term implies that the subject has a desire to do something but the desire is without power or energy. 2. A disorder marked by the partial or total inability to make decisions.

a, an: Grammatical Articles
(confusion exists about usage of "a" and "an" in front of other words)
The Inconsistent Articles "a" and "an"
Everyone who has a desire to improve his/her English skills should strive to develop fluency and accuracy by having access to information that presents a better understanding of the many confusing words that exist in English.
The proper use of "a" and "an"
There is an article on the proper use of "a" and "an" in just about every usage book ever written, although apparently few native speakers of English have any difficulty with them; in fact rarely does anyone think about them in speech.
If there is any difficulty, it is to be found in writing. The basic rules are as follows: Use "a" before a consonant sound; use "an" before a vowel sound. Before a letter or an acronym or before numerals, choose "a" or "an" according to the way the letter or numeral is pronounced: an FDA directive, a United Nations' resolution, a $50.00 bill.
As we might expect, actual usage is more complex than the simple rules tend to lead us to expect. Here are some of the things that actual usage shows:
In line with the basic rule, before words with an initial consonant sound, "a" is the usual application in speech and writing.
Before "h" in an unstressed or weakly stressed syllable, "a" and "an" are both used in writing (an historic, a historic) but an is more usual in speech, whether the "h" is pronounced or not. This variation exists as a result of historical development; in unstressed and weakly stressed syllables, "h" was formerly not pronounced in many words as it is currently pronounced by many people. A few words; such as, historic and (especially in England) hotel, are in transition, and may be found with either a or an. Apparently, people may now choose the article that suits their personal pronunciation preferences with several h words.
Occasionally in modern writing and speech and regularly in the King James Version of the Bible, an is used before "h" in a stressed syllable, as in an hundred. Again, we have the same historical change: many more words were pronounced with a silent initial "h" in the past than are in the present. A few words; such as, heir, hour, and honest, generally have silent "h"; some others, like herb or humble are pronounced both ways. Use a or an according to your personal pronunciation preferences.
Before words beginning with a consonant sound but an orthographic vowel, an is sometimes used in speech and writing (an unique and such an one). This use is less frequent now than in the past.
Before words with an initial vowel sound, an is usual in speech and writing. This is in line with the basic rule.

abacus
(Hebrew > Greek > Latin > Middle English: dust)
The Abacus, a History
The source of our word abacus, the Greek word abax, is thought to come from Hebrew 'abaq, "dust", although the details of such a transmission are obscure. In postbiblical usage 'abaq meant "sand used as a writing surface". The Greek word abax has as one of its senses "a board sprinkled with sand or dust for drawing geometric diagrams." The difference in form between the Middle English word abacus and its Greek source abax is explained by the fact that Middle English actually borrowed Latin abacus, which came from the Greek genitive form (abakos) of abax
abacus (s); abaci (pl)
1. A manual computing device consisting of a frame holding parallel rods strung with movable counters. 2. In architecture, a slab on the top of the capital of a column.

abdomino-, abdomin-, abdomen-
(Latin: belly, venter [the use of "stomach" is considered incorrect for this element])
abdomen
That portion of the body which lies between the lower thorax (chest) and the pelvis; or "the region of the trunk below the diaphragm, containing the largest cavity in the body". Also called belly (popular), venter, and stomach (incorrect). Derived from abdo, abdere, "to hide", and so probably originally referred to the "hidden part of the body".
abdominal, abdominally
Pertaining to the abdomen.
A stomach ache has been defined as an abominable pain in the abdominal area.
—Anonymous
"The stomach (which is in the abdominal area) is lined with thirty-five million glands that produce about three quarts (2.85 liters) of gastric juices daily. Hydrochloric acid makes up roughly five percent of these juices and, together with other acids and various enzymes, constantly works to digest food particles."
—Neil McAleer in his The Body Almanac
abdominalgia
Pain in the abdomen; a belly ache.
abdominoanterior
With the abdomen forward [denoting a position of the fetus in utero].
abdominocentesis
Paracentesis (surgical puncture of the abdominal wall cavity for the aspiration [removal by suction] of peritoneal fluid); i.e., puncturing of the abdomen with a hollow needle or trocar, usually for the purpose of withdrawing fluid.
abdominopelvic
Relating to the abdomen and pelvis, especially the combined abdominal and pelvic cavities.
abdominoplasty
An operation ["belly tuck"] performed on the abdominal wall for esthetic purposes and self esteem; an operation performed on the abdominal wall for esthetic purposes.
abdominoscope
Another term for endoscope but more specifically as it applies to an examination of the abdominal cavity and its contents..
abdominoscopy, abdominoscopic
Inspection or examination of the abdominal cavity; particularly the direct examination of the abdominal organs by endoscopy; peritoneoscopy; laparoscopy.
abdominoscrotal
Relating to the abdomen and the scrotum.
abdominous
Having a paunch or big belly; overly corpulent [fat] in the abdominal area.
abdominovaginal
Relating to both abdomen and vagina.
abdominovesical
Relating to the abdomen and urinary bladder, or to the abdomen and gallbladder.
dorsabdominal
Relating to the back and the abdomen.
endoabdominal
Within the abdomen

ability
(Latin: a suffix )
Just a few examples out of hundres of words presented as the noun forms of -able; forming nouns of quality from, or corresponding to, adjectives in -able; the quality in an agent that makes an action possible. The suffix -ible has related meanings.
absorbability
The state or quality of being absorbable; capability of being absorbed.
accountability
1. The state of being accountable, liable, or answerable.2. Responsibility to someone or for some activity.3. In education: a policy of holding schools and teachers accountable for students' academic progress by linking such progress with funding for salaries, maintenance, etc.
achievability
The state or condition of being achievable.
affability, affableness
The quality of being affable; readiness to converse or be addressed; especially, by inferiors or equals; courteousness, civility, openness of manner.
applicability
Relevance by virtue of being applicable to the matter at hand.
assailability
Vulnerability to forceful attack.
availability
Being at hand when needed.
bioavailability
1. The physiological availability of a given amount of a drug, as distinct from its chemical potency; proportion of the administered dose which is absorbed into the bloodstream. 2. The degree to which a drug administered is distributed throughout the body and thus available for action at the desired receptor sites.
biodegradable, biodegradability, biodegradation
1. Anything that is susceptible to the decomposing action of living organisms, especially of bacteria; which are occasionally broken down by biochemical processes in the body. 2. Denoting a substance that can be chemically degraded or decomposed by natural processes (for example: weather, soil bacteria, plants, animals) without harming the environment. Also, biodeterioration.
capability
The capacity to be used, treated, or developed for a particular purpose.
cognizability
Capable of being known or recognized; the ability to have knowledge or understanding.
computability
1. The ability to determine by calculation or reckoning.2. That which can be computed or estimated by using a computer or calculator.
credibility
1. The ability to inspire belief or trust. 2. A willingness to accept something as true. 3. The quality of being credible; an instance or case of this.3. Believable, plausible; capable of being believed.
creditability
Worthy of often limited commendation; such as, "The student's efforts with the test; although not outstanding, it was creditable."
culpability
1. A state of guilt.2. In explanations and predictions of human action and inaction culpability is a measure of the degree to which an agent; such as, a person, can be held morally or legally responsible.3. Culpability marks the dividing line between moral evil, like murder, for which someone may be held responsible; and natural evil, like earthquakes, for which no one can be held responsible.4. From a legal perspective, culpability describes the degree of one's blameworthiness in the commission of a crime or offense.
Except for strict liability crimes, the type and severity of punishment often follow the degree of culpability.

-able
(Latin: a suffix; capable of, able to, can do)
A suffix that forms adjectives. The suffix -ible has related meanings; expressing ability, capacity, fitness; capable of, fit for, able to be done, can be done, inclined to, tending to, given to.
This list is only a small sample of the thousands of -able words that exist in Englsh.
abominable
A bad omen; nasty and disgusting; vile; loathsome.
accountable
acidifiable
Capable of being converted into, or of combining so as to form, an acid.
acquaintable
Easy to be acquainted with; affable.
adorable
advisable
affable
Easy of conversation or address; civil and courteous in receiving and responding to the conversation or address of others; especially, inferiors or equals; accostable, courteous, complaisant, benign.
affirmable
agglutinable
Capable of agglutilnation (the process of union in the healing of a wound).
agitable
Capable of being agitated, easily moved, or disturbed.
alienable
alterable
Capable of being changed.
ameliorable
Capable of being ameliorated.
amendable
That which can be amended, corrected, bettered, repaired, or make amends for.
amiable
1. Friendly and agreeable in feeling and disposition; showing good will; good-natured and likeable.2. Cordial; sociable; congenial; such as, "an amiable gathering".

Ablutions or Bathing, Historical Perspectives
(Latin: abluere, to wash away)
Ablutions from the Past to the Present
In a leading public health textbook of 1908, W.T. Sedgwick noted that because personal hygiene is a means to control infectious diseases, “the absence of dirt is not merely an esthetic adornment.” He added that cleanliness is “doubtless an acquired taste.”
Sedgwick’s comment came at a time of transition, when personal hygiene wasn’t a widespread habit.
Through great periods of European and much of U.S. history, clieanliness was inconvenient, religiously restricted, or just plain out of fashion.
Living unwashed were saints, the masses, and monarchs alike.
In response to the debauchery of Roman baths, the early Christian church frequently discouraged cleanliness. “To those that are well, and especially to the young,” Saint Benedict in the sixth century commanded, “bathing shall seldom be permitted.”
Saint Francis of Assisi considered an unwashed body a stinking badge of piety. Queen Isabella of Castile boasted that she had had only two baths in her life—at birth and before her marriage.
Colonial America’s leaders deemed bathing impure, since it promoted nudity, which could only lead to promiscuity.
Laws in Pennsylvania and Virginia either banned or limited bathing. For a time in Philadelphia, anyone who bathed more than once a month faced jail.
Bathing facilities often were not available
The English of that era really couldn’t bathe even if they wanted to, notes V. W. Greene, a professor of epidemiology at the Ben Gurion Medical School in Beersheva, Israel. “There was no running water, streams were cold and polluted, heating fuel was expensive, and soap was hard to get or heavily taxed. There just weren’t facilities for personal hygiene. Cleanliness wasn’t a part of the folk culture.”
Through much of the 19th century, adds Greene, Europeans and Americans lived in wretched filth, and many died young of associated diseases.
Archaeological evidence suggests 5,000-year-old bathing facilities in Gaza. Soaplike material found in clay jars of Babylonian origin has been dated to about 2800 B.C.
Before the time of Abraham in Middle Eastern desert climes, custom dictated that hosts offer washing water to guests to clean their feet.
One of the first known bathtubs comes from Minoan Crete that was found in the palace at Knossos and is dated about 1700 B.C.
The palace plumbing system had terra-cotta pipes that were jointed and cemented together and were tapered at one end to give water a shooting action to prevent the buildup of clogging sediment. Their technology put Minoans in the hydrological vanguard.
The ancients had their hygienic practices
The ancient Egyptians didn’t develop such plumbing, but they definitely liked hygiene which was evident in their use of fresh linen and body ointments, skin condioners, and deodorants of the day.
The Greeks apparently prized cleanliness. Although they apparently didn’t use soap, Greeks anointed their bodies with oil and ashes, scrubbed with blocks of pumice or sand, and scraped themselves clean with a curved metal instrument called a “strigil”. Immersion in water and anointment with olive oil followed their ablutions.
At its peak of ablutive excess, it may have seemed that all of Rome indulged in the baths. In the fourth century A.D., the city had eleven large and magnificent public bathhouses, more than 1,350 public fountains and cisterns, and many hundreds of private baths.
Served by thirteen aqueducts, Rome’s per-capita daily water consumption averaged about 300 gallons, nearly what an American family of four uses today.
Roman baths usually opened at midday, just as sportsmen finished their games or exercises. A bather first entered the “tepidarium”, a moderately warm room for sweating and lingering.
Next came the “calidarium”, a hotter room for greater sweating, or perhaps the ultrahot "laconicum".
In these the bather doused himself with copious quantities of warm, tepid, or cold water.
Scraped off with a strigil, sponged and reanointed, the Roman concluded the process by plunging into the cool and refreshing pool of the “frigitarium”.
Rome’s obsession with bathing is said to be a factor that helped send the empire down the drain.
Early Christian leaders condemned bathing as unspiritual
“The father’s of the early church equated bodily cleanliness with the luxuries, materialism, paganism and what’s been called ‘the monstrous sensualities’ of Rome,” explains Professor Greene.
Within a few centuries, the public and private sanitation practices of Greece and Rome were forgotten; or, as Greene adds, were “deliberately repressed.”
Europe during the Middle Ages, it’s often been said, went a thousand years without a bath.
Gregory the Great, the first monk to become pope, allowed Sunday baths and even commended them, so long as they didn’t become a “time-wasting luxury.”
Guardians of culture and knowledge during the Dark Ages, Europe’s monasteries also preserved some of Rome’s hydrological technology and cleanliness habits.
Elaborate plumbing laid in 1150 served the Christchurch Monastery at Canterbury, with settling tanks to purify water, and branches that fed the kitchen, the laver, and the washouse.
Greene stated, “People always talk about the good old days, before pesticides and pollution; but in the good old days of Europe and the United States, people lived in filth, with human and animal fecal matter all around. The rivers were filthy. Clothing was infested with vermin.”
Cleanliness leads to better health
Although scholars point to advances in medical science; such as, vaccines and antibiotics, as the major factors in turning the tide against disease, the changes in personal and domestic hygiene should be given considerable credit for improvements in better health conditions.
“For one thing,” Greene explains, “pasteurization and vaccines didn’t really come along until the mortality decline was well established. That’s not to say vaccines weren’t important. But nearly 40 diseases are transmitted by feces, urine, and other secretions on contaminated hands or other objects. The greatest cause of fatal infant diarrhea came from mothers who went to the toilet, didn’t wash their hands and passed along intestinal bacteria to their babies.”
Body ordor is not caused by the human body or sweat itself. The skin has more than two million sweat glands, and the perspiration that comes from the abundant eccrine sweat glands is fundamentally clear and odorless.
Common skin flora, consisting of several kinds of benign bacteria, feed off the secretions and skin particles on the body and clothing. In the process of eating and eliminating waste, the bacteria cause the stench.
Most people rely on soap and water to get rid of the sweat that bacteria eat. Since soap contains fats, oils, and alkali; it loosens the bonds that hold dirt, oil, and bacteria to the skin and suspends them in water.
Some experts say that the way to get really clean is to soak and to wash in a bathtub and then to shower off the “floating soap and body-oil slick” that clings to the body when a person stands up in the tub.
Even in our “modern age”, too many people who should know better, do not wash their hands after using a toilet.
Cleanliness, via ablutions, is one of the most important ways to maintain good health

abluto-, ablut-
(Latin: washing; especially as a ritual; cleansing)
From Latin ab- and luere, "to wash" which is related to lavare, "to wash".
abluent
1. Serving to cleanse. 2. A cleansing agent; a detergent.
ablution
1. A cleansing of the body, especially in a religious ceremony. 2. The liquid used in such a washing.
ablutionary
1. Of or pertaining to washing the body, or parts of it.2. Cleansing the body by washing; especially, ritual washing of the hands, etc.
ablutions
This may refer to the practice of removing sins, diseases or earthly defilements through the use of ritual washing, or the practice of using ritual washing as one part of a ceremony to remove sin or disease.
ablutomania
1. An obsessional preoccupation with cleanliness, washing, or bathing, often accompanied by compulsive rituals.2. An obsessive-compulsive disorder is very often seen in a condition; such as, obsessive-compulsive psychoneurosis.3. A morbid impulse to wash or to bathe, or an incessant preoccupation with thought of frequent hand-washing, or bathing; often seen as an obsessive-compulsive disorder.
Compulsive rituals are enormously time-consuming. One woman had a compulsion to wash her hands in a certain way after touching "unclean" objects; namely, from fingers to wrist, from wrist to elbow, and from elbow to upper arm, and then to repeat the performance until her anxiety was over, which could be several times. As a result, her hands often became painfully raw.
A young man had the compulsion to wash in a certain order whenever he had a bath. He said, "When I wash clothes or clean anything—floor, carpet, windows, and so on—I have to clean them in a certain manner to make sure I do not miss anything. I can never hurry because I would not feel that it has been done properly."


When the thoughts and rituals of obsessive-compulsive disorders are intense, the victim's work and home life disintegrate. With severe compulsions, endless rituals dominate each day.

-ably, a suffix;
(able manner, capably)
In an able manner, or capably; forming adverbs corresponding to adjectives in -able.
adorably
amiably
Friendly and agreeable in disposition; good-natured and likeable.
amicably
comfortably
comparably
conceivably
creditably
despicably
determinably
durably
Capable of withstanding wear or decay.
formidably
habitably
incomparably
justifiably
laudably
Deserving praise.

abort-, aborti-
(Latin: miscarry, pass away, perish by an untimely birth
abort, aborted, aborting
1. To give birth before the fetus is viable; have a miscarriage; to fail to be completed. 2. To cut short because of some failure in equipment: "To abort a flight because of radio failure."3. Originally, "to set" or "to disappear" (as the sun). Composed of ab-, "from" and oriri- "to arise"; the part of the sky, or the world, in which the sun rises; the East.
aborticide
The killing of a fetus during an abortion.
aborticide, feticide
The killing of a fetus.
abortifacient
A drug or device that causes an abortion or kills the fetus before birth.
abortion, abortional
1. Expulsion of a fetus from the womb before it is viable; however, medical personnel will also use this term for a miscarriage, which is involuntary, calling it a "spontaneous abortion".2. Induced termination of pregnancy before the fetus is capable of independent survival.3. Anything that fails to develop, progress, or mature; such as, a design, project, or a badly developed plan, etc.4. To miscarry, to disappear.4. Etymology: ab-, "from, away from" and oriri, "to come into being, to rise, to be born".
abortionist
1. One who believes and promotes the practice of abortion. 2. One who makes a business of inducing illegal abortions.
abortive, abortivate, abortiveness, abortively
1. Incompletely developed. 2. Effecting an abortion; abortifacient. 3. Cutting short the course of a disease. 4. Failing to accomplish an objective, futile. Imperfectly developed.
abortorium, (s); abortoria (pl)
A clinic (clinics) or a hospital (hospitals) where abortions are performed.
abortus
1. A fetus which weighs less than 500 gm. (17 oz.) or is less than twenty weeks' gestational age at the time of expulsion from the uterus, having no chance of survival.2. To pass away, to perish.
Something that has been aborted or stopped.
antiabortion
Opposition to abortions.
antiabortionist
A person who is opposed to abortions.
postabortal
Happening subsequent to, or after, an abortion.
postabortion, post-abortion
After an abortion.
proabortion
Favoring or supporting abortions.
proabortionist
A person who supports or is in favor of abortions.

aboulo-, aboul-, abulo-, abul-
(Greek: irresolution, indecision, loss or defect of the ability to make decisions)
aboulia, abulia
1. Loss or impairment of the ability to perform voluntary actions or to make decisions.2. Loss of will-power, as a mental disorder.3. Reduction in speech, movement, thought, and emotional reaction; a common result of bilateral frontal lobe disease.
aboulias, abulias
Loss or impairment of the ability to make decisions or act independently.
aboulic, abulic
Relating to or suffering from aboulia/abulia.
aboulomania, abulomania
A mental disorder in which there is a loss of will-power.
abulia, abulic
1. Absence of willpower or wishpower; the term implies that the subject has a desire to do something but the desire is without power or energy. 2. A disorder marked by the partial or total inability to make decisions.
paraboulia, parabulia
Perversion of volition or will in which one impulse is checked and replaced by another.
a-, an-(Greek: a prefix meaning: no, absence of, without, lack of, not)These prefixes are normally used with elements of Greek origin, a- is used before consonants and an- is used before vowels. It affects the meanings of hundreds of words.There are too many words that use these prefix elements to list all of them on this site; however, there are some significant examples listed in this and the other groups provided.abacterialFree of bacteria; without bacteria.abaptismThe absence of baptism; no baptism.abarognosis1. Loss of ability to appreciate the weight of objects held in the hand, or to differentiate objects of different weights.2. Loss of the sense of weight; unaware of weight.3. When the primary senses are intact, caused by a lesion of the contralateral parietal lobe.abasiaThe inability to walk due to a limitation or absence of muscular coordination; not able to walk.abiocoen, abiocenThe sum of all the nonliving components of an environment or habitat.a, an: Grammatical Articles(confusion exists about usage of "a" and "an" in front of other words)The Inconsistent Articles "a" and "an"Everyone who has a desire to improve his/her English skills should strive to develop fluency and accuracy by having access to information that presents a better understanding of the many confusing words that exist in English.The proper use of "a" and "an"There is an article on the proper use of "a" and "an" in just about every usage book ever written, although apparently few native speakers of English have any difficulty with them; in fact rarely does anyone think about them in speech.If there is any difficulty, it is to be found in writing. The basic rules are as follows: Use "a" before a consonant sound; use "an" before a vowel sound. Before a letter or an acronym or before numerals, choose "a" or "an" according to the way the letter or numeral is pronounced: an FDA directive, a United Nations' resolution, a $50.00 bill.As we might expect, actual usage is more complex than the simple rules tend to lead us to expect. Here are some of the things that actual usage shows:In line with the basic rule, before words with an initial consonant sound, "a" is the usual application in speech and writing.Before "h" in an unstressed or weakly stressed syllable, "a" and "an" are both used in writing (an historic, a historic) but an is more usual in speech, whether the "h" is pronounced or not. This variation exists as a result of historical development; in unstressed and weakly stressed syllables, "h" was formerly not pronounced in many words as it is currently pronounced by many people. A few words; such as, historic and (especially in England) hotel, are in transition, and may be found with either a or an. Apparently, people may now choose the article that suits their personal pronunciation preferences with several h words.Occasionally in modern writing and speech and regularly in the King James Version of the Bible, an is used before "h" in a stressed syllable, as in an hundred. Again, we have the same historical change: many more words were pronounced with a silent initial "h" in the past than are in the present. A few words; such as, heir, hour, and honest, generally have silent "h"; some others, like herb or humble are pronounced both ways. Use a or an according to your personal pronunciation preferences.Before words beginning with a consonant sound but an orthographic vowel, an is sometimes used in speech and writing (an unique and such an one). This use is less frequent now than in the past.Before words with an initial vowel sound, an is usual in speech and writing. This is in line with the basic rule.abacus(Hebrew > Greek > Latin > Middle English: dust)The Abacus, a HistoryThe source of our word abacus, the Greek word abax, is thought to come from Hebrew 'abaq, "dust", although the details of such a transmission are obscure. In postbiblical usage 'abaq meant "sand used as a writing surface". The Greek word abax has as one of its senses "a board sprinkled with sand or dust for drawing geometric diagrams." The difference in form between the Middle English word abacus and its Greek source abax is explained by the fact that Middle English actually borrowed Latin abacus, which came from the Greek genitive form (abakos) of abax.abacus (s); abaci (pl)1. A manual computing device consisting of a frame holding parallel rods strung with movable counters.2. In architecture, a slab on the top of the capital of a column.abdomino-, abdomin-, abdomen-(Latin: belly, venter [the use of "stomach" is considered incorrect for this element])abdomenThat portion of the body which lies between the lower thorax (chest) and the pelvis; or "the region of the trunk below the diaphragm, containing the largest cavity in the body". Also called belly (popular), venter, and stomach (incorrect). Derived from abdo, abdere, "to hide", and so probably originally referred to the "hidden part of the body".abdominal, abdominallyPertaining to the abdomen.A stomach ache has been defined as an abominable pain in the abdominal area.—Anonymous"The stomach (which is in the abdominal area) is lined with thirty-five million glands that produce about three quarts (2.85 liters) of gastric juices daily. Hydrochloric acid makes up roughly five percent of these juices and, together with other acids and various enzymes, constantly works to digest food particles."—Neil McAleer in his The Body AlmanacabdominalgiaPain in the abdomen; a belly ache.abdominoanteriorWith the abdomen forward [denoting a position of the fetus in utero].abdominocentesisParacentesis (surgical puncture of the abdominal wall cavity for the aspiration [removal by suction] of peritoneal fluid); i.e., puncturing of the abdomen with a hollow needle or trocar, usually for the purpose of withdrawing fluid.abdominopelvicRelating to the abdomen and pelvis, especially the combined abdominal and pelvic cavities.abdominoplastyAn operation ["belly tuck"] performed on the abdominal wall for esthetic purposes and self esteem; an operation performed on the abdominal wall for esthetic purposes.-ability(Latin: a suffix )Just a few examples out of hundres of words presented as the noun forms of -able; forming nouns of quality from, or corresponding to, adjectives in -able; the quality in an agent that makes an action possible. The suffix -ible has related meanings.absorbabilityThe state or quality of being absorbable; capability of being absorbed.accountability1. The state of being accountable, liable, or answerable.2. Responsibility to someone or for some activity.3. In education: a policy of holding schools and teachers accountable for students' academic progress by linking such progress with funding for salaries, maintenance, etc.achievabilityThe state or condition of being achievable.affability, affablenessThe quality of being affable; readiness to converse or be addressed; especially, by inferiors or equals; courteousness, civility, openness of manner.applicabilityRelevance by virtue of being applicable to the matter at hand.-able(Latin: a suffix; capable of, able to, can do)A suffix that forms adjectives. The suffix -ible has related meanings; expressing ability, capacity, fitness; capable of, fit for, able to be done, can be done, inclined to, tending to, given to.This list is only a small sample of the thousands of -able words that exist in Englsh.abominableA bad omen; nasty and disgusting; vile; loathsome.accountableacidifiableCapable of being converted into, or of combining so as to form, an acid.acquaintableEasy to be acquainted with; affable.adorableadvisableaffableEasy of conversation or address; civil and courteous in receiving and responding to the conversation or address of others; especially, inferiors or equals; accostable, courteous, complaisant, benign.Ablutions or Bathing, Historical Perspectives(Latin: abluere, to wash away)Ablutions from the Past to the PresentIn a leading public health textbook of 1908, W.T. Sedgwick noted that because personal hygiene is a means to control infectious diseases, “the absence of dirt is not merely an esthetic adornment.” He added that cleanliness is “doubtless an acquired taste.”Sedgwick’s comment came at a time of transition, when personal hygiene wasn’t a widespread habit.Through great periods of European and much of U.S. history, clieanliness was inconvenient, religiously restricted, or just plain out of fashion.Living unwashed were saints, the masses, and monarchs alike.In response to the debauchery of Roman baths, the early Christian church frequently discouraged cleanliness. “To those that are well, and especially to the young,” Saint Benedict in the sixth century commanded, “bathing shall seldom be permitted.”Saint Francis of Assisi considered an unwashed body a stinking badge of piety. Queen Isabella of Castile boasted that she had had only two baths in her life—at birth and before her marriage.Colonial America’s leaders deemed bathing impure, since it promoted nudity, which could only lead to promiscuity.Laws in Pennsylvania and Virginia either banned or limited bathing. For a time in Philadelphia, anyone who bathed more than once a month faced jail.Bathing facilities often were not availableThe English of that era really couldn’t bathe even if they wanted to, notes V. W. Greene, a professor of epidemiology at the Ben Gurion Medical School in Beersheva, Israel. “There was no running water, streams were cold and polluted, heating fuel was expensive, and soap was hard to get or heavily taxed. There just weren’t facilities for personal hygiene. Cleanliness wasn’t a part of the folk culture.”Through much of the 19th century, adds Greene, Europeans and Americans lived in wretched filth, and many died young of associated diseases.Archaeological evidence suggests 5,000-year-old bathing facilities in Gaza. Soaplike material found in clay jars of Babylonian origin has been dated to about 2800 B.C.Before the time of Abraham in Middle Eastern desert climes, custom dictated that hosts offer washing water to guests to clean their feet.One of the first known bathtubs comes from Minoan Crete that was found in the palace at Knossos and is dated about 1700 B.C.The palace plumbing system had terra-cotta pipes that were jointed and cemented together and were tapered at one end to give water a shooting action to prevent the buildup of clogging sediment. Their technology put Minoans in the hydrological vanguard.The ancients had their hygienic practicesThe ancient Egyptians didn’t develop such plumbing, but they definitely liked hygiene which was evident in their use of fresh linen and body ointments, skin condioners, and deodorants of the day.The Greeks apparently prized cleanliness. Although they apparently didn’t use soap, Greeks anointed their bodies with oil and ashes, scrubbed with blocks of pumice or sand, and scraped themselves clean with a curved metal instrument called a “strigil”. Immersion in water and anointment with olive oil followed their ablutions.At its peak of ablutive excess, it may have seemed that all of Rome indulged in the baths. In the fourth century A.D., the city had eleven large and magnificent public bathhouses, more than 1,350 public fountains and cisterns, and many hundreds of private baths.Served by thirteen aqueducts, Rome’s per-capita daily water consumption averaged about 300 gallons, nearly what an American family of four uses today.Roman baths usually opened at midday, just as sportsmen finished their games or exercises. A bather first entered the “tepidarium”, a moderately warm room for sweating and lingering.Next came the “calidarium”, a hotter room for greater sweating, or perhaps the ultrahot "laconicum".In these the bather doused himself with copious quantities of warm, tepid, or cold water.Scraped off with a strigil, sponged and reanointed, the Roman concluded the process by plunging into the cool and refreshing pool of the “frigitarium”.Rome’s obsession with bathing is said to be a factor that helped send the empire down the drain.Early Christian leaders condemned bathing as unspiritual“The father’s of the early church equated bodily cleanliness with the luxuries, materialism, paganism and what’s been called ‘the monstrous sensualities’ of Rome,” explains Professor Greene.Within a few centuries, the public and private sanitation practices of Greece and Rome were forgotten; or, as Greene adds, were “deliberately repressed.”Europe during the Middle Ages, it’s often been said, went a thousand years without a bath.Gregory the Great, the first monk to become pope, allowed Sunday baths and even commended them, so long as they didn’t become a “time-wasting luxury.”Guardians of culture and knowledge during the Dark Ages, Europe’s monasteries also preserved some of Rome’s hydrological technology and cleanliness habits.Elaborate plumbing laid in 1150 served the Christchurch Monastery at Canterbury, with settling tanks to purify water, and branches that fed the kitchen, the laver, and the washouse.Greene stated, “People always talk about the good old days, before pesticides and pollution; but in the good old days of Europe and the United States, people lived in filth, with human and animal fecal matter all around. The rivers were filthy. Clothing was infested with vermin.”Cleanliness leads to better healthAlthough scholars point to advances in medical science; such as, vaccines and antibiotics, as the major factors in turning the tide against disease, the changes in personal and domestic hygiene should be given considerable credit for improvements in better health conditions.“For one thing,” Greene explains, “pasteurization and vaccines didn’t really come along until the mortality decline was well established. That’s not to say vaccines weren’t important. But nearly 40 diseases are transmitted by feces, urine, and other secretions on contaminated hands or other objects. The greatest cause of fatal infant diarrhea came from mothers who went to the toilet, didn’t wash their hands and passed along intestinal bacteria to their babies.”Body ordor is not caused by the human body or sweat itself. The skin has more than two million sweat glands, and the perspiration that comes from the abundant eccrine sweat glands is fundamentally clear and odorless.Common skin flora, consisting of several kinds of benign bacteria, feed off the secretions and skin particles on the body and clothing. In the process of eating and eliminating waste, the bacteria cause the stench.Most people rely on soap and water to get rid of the sweat that bacteria eat. Since soap contains fats, oils, and alkali; it loosens the bonds that hold dirt, oil, and bacteria to the skin and suspends them in water.Some experts say that the way to get really clean is to soak and to wash in a bathtub and then to shower off the “floating soap and body-oil slick” that clings to the body when a person stands up in the tub.Even in our “modern age”, too many people who should know better, do not wash their hands after using a toilet.Cleanliness, via ablutions, is one of the most important ways to maintain good health.abluto-, ablut-(Latin: washing; especially as a ritual; cleansing)From Latin ab- and luere, "to wash" which is related to lavare, "to wash".abluent1. Serving to cleanse.2. A cleansing agent; a detergent.ablution1. A cleansing of the body, especially in a religious ceremony.2. The liquid used in such a washing.ablutionary1. Of or pertaining to washing the body, or parts of it.2. Cleansing the body by washing; especially, ritual washing of the hands, etc.ablutionsThis may refer to the practice of removing sins, diseases or earthly defilements through the use of ritual washing, or the practice of using ritual washing as one part of a ceremony to remove sin or disease.ablutomania1. An obsessional preoccupation with cleanliness, washing, or bathing, often accompanied by compulsive rituals.2. An obsessive-compulsive disorder is very often seen in a condition; such as, obsessive-compulsive psychoneurosis.3. A morbid impulse to wash or to bathe, or an incessant preoccupation with thought of frequent hand-washing, or bathing; often seen as an obsessive-compulsive disorder.-ably, a suffix;(able manner, capably)In an able manner, or capably; forming adverbs corresponding to adjectives in -able.adorablyamiablyFriendly and agreeable in disposition; good-natured and likeable.amicablycomfortablycomparablyconceivablycreditablydespicablydeterminablydurablyCapable of withstanding wear or decay.formidablyhabitablyincomparablyjustifiablylaudablyDeserving praise.abort-, aborti-(Latin: miscarry, pass away, perish by an untimely birth)abort, aborted, aborting1. To give birth before the fetus is viable; have a miscarriage; to fail to be completed.2. To cut short because of some failure in equipment: "To abort a flight because of radio failure."3. Originally, "to set" or "to disappear" (as the sun). Composed of ab-, "from" and oriri- "to arise"; the part of the sky, or the world, in which the sun rises; the East.aborticideThe killing of a fetus during an abortion.aborticide, feticideThe killing of a fetus.abortifacientA drug or device that causes an abortion or kills the fetus before birth.abortion, abortional1. Expulsion of a fetus from the womb before it is viable; however, medical personnel will also ue this term for a miscarriage, which is involuntary, calling it a "spontaneous abortion".2. Induced termination of pregnancy before the fetus is capable of independent survival.3. Anything that fails to develop, progress, or mature; such as, a design, project, or a badly developed plan, etc.4. To miscarry, to disappear.4. Etymology: ab-, "from, away from" and oriri, "to come into being, to rise, to be born".aboulo-, aboul-, abulo-, abul-(Greek: irresolution, indecision, loss or defect of the ability to make decisions)aboulia, abulia1. Loss or impairment of the ability to perform voluntary actions or to make decisions.2. Loss of will-power, as a mental disorder.3. Reduction in speech, movement, thought, and emotional reaction; a common result of bilateral frontal lobe disease.aboulias, abuliasLoss or impairment of the ability to make decisions or act independently.aboulic, abulicRelating to or suffering from aboulia/abulia.aboulomania, abulomaniaA mental disorder in which there is a loss of will-power.abulia, abulic1. Absence of willpower or wishpower; the term implies that the subject has a desire to do something but the desire is without power or energy.2. A disorder marked by the partial or total inability to make decisions.paraboulia, parabuliaPerversion of volition or will in which one impulse is checked and replaced by another.